Formas de implementación
De Wikis en Educación
- Group interaction and positive interdependence among participants.
- Assumption of work and individual responsibility.
- Incorporation of efficient strategies <
- Development of educational autonomy: Self-learning.
- Proper acquisition of specific
- Roles teachers and students.
COLLABORATIVE LEARNING PLATFORM === LMS. ===
' (advanced version of the program ) allows the design virtual learning for collaborative knowledge creation. This technology is based on studies conducted on Scardamalia and Bereiter learning communities in the eighties. His main idea was to transform schools into genuine communities of practice, where the processes of peer exchange and collaborative knowledge production were not exceptional, but the
The main features of this platform are:
- Views or multiple spacesdiscussionin which each member can propose an issue to the community. The "threads" of discussion,
- Scaffolding tools (scaffolds),designed for students to focus their activity on a particular topic. The program has two types of predefined scaffolding, builder of theories and
- Managementdynamics of participation: Each participant will be assigned different "privileges within the platform" (creation of new windows, rise of multimedia objects, access to ongoing projects, etc..) And the role of moderator is, usually reserved for the teacher, who can eliminate unwanted and assign (or remove) privileges.
- The display of the knowledge networkshows the connections between ideas in a semantic network, so that each student can follow comfortably and insert new
- Contributionsare another bald allow the transmission of knowledge in multiple formats we want to share with other members of the community. The contributions do not appear as isolated objects,
Theplatform BSCL( Basic Support for Cooperative Learning), developed between 2001 and 2003 the project ITCOLE, sponsored by the European Union, aims to support collaborative learning and online creating structured spaces in which processes group interaction and collaborative construction settle in established pedagogical principles. Gerry Stahl's participation in the project, led to much of the platform, be built on the theory of group cognition, according to which knowledge is the result of interactions among group members, the knowledge
Image taken from the tutorial : http://www.synergeia.info </ sup>
Some characteristic features of this platform are:
- Scenario .-'workspace each group member and in which is shown in an integrated manner all relevant information: Courses, messages, shortcuts, shortcuts, action buttons, events, materials, etc..
- Folderscourse and group .- They contain all the information about activities, tasks and materials. Provides access to the forums and the corporate board.
- Thesystemforums automatically generated for each student three "job prospects", "personal knowledge construction" (student forum), "construction of knowledge of the course" (forum member of course) and "construction of knowledge of the group (group work forums). Students may participate in any forum (who have access), suggest new topics or respond to open questions. All responses are listed in five categories: Problem, explanation, scientific explanation, evaluation and summary, so it is
- Thesystemcontent negotiation is possibly the most characteristic feature of this platform: A student, in principle, can not write anything or modify content on the
main page of the course without having negotiated before their peers. The negotiation functions as a feedback system whereby, when a job comes the teacher or certain content crashes, the entire community of learners who are responsible for it.
- The last characteristic element is the slatecooperative(MapTool) that allows students and teachers interact together in a work setting, for instance develop schemes, drawing objects, building flowcharts, etc..
A basic element of collaborative writing and peer interaction arewikiplatforms. " Thus, some environments'e-learning include the facility to enable wikis as a tool of the "virtual campus". Two of the LMS (learning management systems') http://moodle.org/ :'[ Moodle known ][ http://moodle.org/]and [Http://www.blackboard.com/Blackboard][ http://www.blackboard.com/]allow include several types of wikis (public, private ... ) according to the needs of each course. Other platforms such as[A-Tutor http://www.atutor.ca/ ], incorporate even more sophisticated tools, such a module to convert groups of students in complex social networks that follow the principles of learning collaborative.
In general,the wiki managers preinstalled on online courses'' have far fewer options, flexibility and customization that the main open source wiki engines and are not suitable for large collaborative projects. However, they have other advantages:
- Simple and intuitive interface.
- Integration with other tools of LMS
- Utilities for monitoring student participation.
GENERAL PURPOSE === Wikis and collaborative learning.
There are many ways of organizing collaborative wiki environments and not all require the design and management of a wiki owner. In fact, the most obvious-and used-to begin working with students as a teaching resource is to use one of the largest providers existing wiki. Even his own Wikipedia and related projects.
(I) TheWikipedia has been the subject of educational research on numerous occasions and has enthusiastic supporters school use this medium as well as some critics that put us on guard about certain dangers and misuse. Let's review different arguments for and against.
- For its size and versatility is a tool for searching and selecting information of great value.
- Being a compendium free and easy access to universal knowledge contributes to reducing the digital divide between classrooms "informal" and "information poor".
- Allows students-even with minimal computer skills, participate in the collaborative process of knowledge construction and negotiation.
- Being the contents subjected to public scrutiny, the student gets used to acquire more responsible work habits. In general, there is evidence that the contributions of students using this
- There is a danger that students handle incomplete, wrong or not proven, for open and egalitarian nature of the medium does not guarantee the content rigor and credibility of sources.
- Their indiscriminate use in all types of homework on students ends up producing some perish intellectual sacrifice the plurality of information and the necessary rigor for the sake of a quick and easy access to the content.
- Promotes the effect of "cuteandpaste" activity turns
echoed in numerous positions of both institutional and academic attitudes, from planning maximalist who opt for the immersion of students in the Wikipedia as an instrument of social emancipation, through some campaigns, with a certain political, designed to promote the publication mass contained in certain languages, to the initiative of some American universities, even more incomprehensible, if possible, to ban the use of Wikipedia to their students.
This, in my opinion, is beyond doubt is that Wikipedia, like other large projects dand the social web is a resource of unquestionable educational value that can be employed in numerous homework and with enormous potential for the
- Dating SearchWikiquotefollowed by text analysis and group reflection.
- Making summaries and concept maps on topics covered in class: This is used some complementary tools such asWikimindmap.
- Analysis of the relative importance of certain concepts and their semantic proximity to others. The use of applications like EyePlorer'may be a good starting point, but even more important to analyze the links between pages.
- Review articles for errors, more information, including a graphical element or improve its references.
- Exercises search of relationships between concepts, adding new links between articles.
- Review of news about current issues in different ways to add short reviews inWikinews.
- Participation in the discussion pages of content. Particularly on issues already considered and discussed in class.
- Assist in the drafting of new content, especially
(II) Wikis integrated into the center's Web. Many
portal sites use CMS (Content Management Systems') as a tool for having a web presence and provide members of the educational community a single platform for information and interaction online. In fact, you can use wiki technology to build the entire portal from the center (and, indeed, we have examples of good practice in the IES ~ 04001205/pmwiki/pmwiki . Almeraya php and Valdebernardo), but usually from a design made in Drupal, . org / Joomla, Liferay or PHP-Nuke, etc.., or be based upon pre-installed platforms offer some autonomous communities (the latter seems to me the worst solution, but now it is time to address the issue) on the fly and add new functionality as the project grows: Personal websites, forums, chats,'all widgets type and wikis are often the most common. In the latter case, wikis can be implemented in two ways:
- Installing components specific to a particular CMS engine. Less powerful solution that will allow us, at most, to enable a collaborative writing space.
- Incorporating an add-on'(the main portals CMS, open source type, have a variety of them) to act as a gateway between central and portal wiki engine chosen.
Well, ponder: What advantages can make the integration of a wiki portal at the center?
- Facilitate the integration by allowing users access center platform wiki space with the same keys.
- The manager appears inline wikis as a service to the educational community and can be used more easily by its members and sharing the same URL.
- All espacios wiki created by teachers and pupils are managed and are included in a single server. They are therefore independent
- Students and teachers have quickly and directly with an instrument in which to develop their teaching activities.
(III) free wiki services hosted on remote servers. When the center does not have an integrated wiki resource on its website, those who wish to pursue educational practices with these platforms have the option to subscribe to a free service wikis offering preinstalled. Its main advantages are:
- Use immediately, because, in very few steps, you are enabled collaborative space.
- Devices to manage the project wiki simple and intuitive, but in general, somewhat limited in resources.
- Interaction in the workspace very easily and without technical knowledge.
On the negative side, we can cite the following drawbacks:
- Less control over the operation of the platform.
- Unit of certain services offered to third parties and may be modified or canceled in the future.
- Far fewer possibilities for customization and install additional resources.
- Certain limitations on the maximum size of project, number of users and / or total pages.
- Few possibilities for effective monitoring of the collaborative activity and to monitor students' work.
- The security control is in the hands of others.
- Some providers include advertising.
When should you use this solution?
- For small projects and / or educational use of the medium was limited to a small number of teachers and students.
- If the teacher makes a timely and sporadic use of learning technologies for collaborative work.
What are the most common uses?
- Exercises specific collaborative knowledge production.
- Making small glossary of terms and summary of contents.
- Development of classroom projects.
- Making a glossary of terms.
- Small personal space and / or group work.
- Development of FAQS.
(IV) open source wiki engines installed on your own server. At present, nearly all schools have a domain name and have our own servers or virtual contracted with a web service provider. Based on the commonly used software on servers (for example, PHP and MySQL), installing a wiki engine is not overly complex and there is always the possibility we ask the provider to install it. Once installed, the advantages are considerable: The
Perhaps this alternative because of its greater complexity, it is interesting for small projects on an occasional basis in the classroom or the educational activities of collaborative writing. But when a team of teachers and students decide to engage in larger wiki projects and willing to stay in time, this is the best option.
What are the most common uses?
- Large interdisciplinary projects involving such a large group of people (professors from various departments, students of different levels and subjects, intercenter projects ...) The type of output produced may be very different: study support materials, small encyclopaedias, magazine of the center, collaborative research projects, places of literary and artistic creation, bulletin local news, etc..
- Wikifarms .- Building a "nursery of wikis" is relatively simple and many wiki engines provide this capability. Thus, each department or each group of students each teacher who claim it would have its own space, while that share common resources already in place. This solution is ideal for creating course wikis in the classroom and (far more powerful than more traditional classroom and tutoring logs), even in a culture of sharing and participatory action more
widespread, it could enable wikis and student's personal portfolio.