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A pc murah laptop laptop computer or just laptop (also notebook computer or notebook) could be a small mobile personal computer, typically weighing from one to three kilograms, depending on size, materials and alternative factors.

While the terms "laptop" and "notebook" are often used interchangeably, "laptop" is the older term, introduced in 1983 with the Gavilan SC. "Notebook computer" is a later coinage, which was used to differentiate smaller devices like those of the Compaq LTE series in 1989, which were, in distinction to previous laptops, the approximate size of an A4 paper sheet.[1] Either term is usually used improperly: due to heat and different issues, several laptops are inappropriate for use on one's lap, and most aren't the scale of an A4 sheet. Although, some older portable computers, such as the Macintosh moveable and certain Zenith TurbosPort models, were sometimes described as "laptops", their size and weight were too great for this category.

Laptops usually run on one battery or from an external AC/DC adapter which can charge the battery whereas additionally supplying power to the computer itself.

An Acer laptop with touchpadAs personal computers, laptops are capable of identical tasks as a desktop computer, although they're usually less powerful for a similar worth. They contain parts that are like their desktop counterparts and perform a similar functions, but are miniaturized and optimized for mobile use and economical power consumption. Laptops typically have liquid crystal displays and most of them use totally different memory modules for their RAM (for instance, SO-DIMM in lieu of the larger DIMMs). in addition to a built-in keyboard, they will utilize a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) or a pointing stick for input, though an external keyboard or mouse can sometimes be attached.

Categories Terms sometimes used for subtypes of laptop computers include:

Ultraportables Laptops with screens generally but 12 inches diagonally and a weight of but 1.7kg. Their primary audience is typically business travellers, who need small, light laptops. Ultraportables are typically very expensive and house power-saving CPUs and almost always have integrated graphics. Thin-and-lights Laptops sometimes weighing in between 1.8kg and 2.8kg with a screen size of between 12 and 14 inches diagonally. Medium-sized laptops These sometimes have screens of fifteen - 15.4 inches diagonally and a weight of around 3-3.5kg. they sometimes sacrifice to a small degree computing power for smaller dimensions and longer battery life, though the length and width are usually determined by the screen size. Desktop replacement computers Powerful laptops meant to be mainly used in a set location and sometimes applied attributable to their weight and size; the latter provides more space for powerful parts and an enormous screen, typically measuring 15 inches or additional. Desktop replacements tend to have limited battery life, rarely exceeding three hours, as a result of the hardware does not optimize power potency. History Before laptop/notebook computers were technically possible, similar ideas had been proposed, most notably Alan Kay's Dynabook concept, developed at Xerox PARC within the early Seventies.

The komputer murah first commercially accessible portable laptop was the Osborne 1 in 1981, that used the CP/M operating system. although it had been large and serious compared to today's laptops, with a tiny CRT monitor, it had a near-revolutionary impact on business, as professionals were able to take their laptop and information with them for the first time. This and alternative "luggables" were impressed by what was in all probability the first portable computer, the Xerox NoteTaker, again developed at Xerox PARC, in 1976; but, solely ten prototypes were engineered. The Osborne was about the size of a conveyable stitching machine, and importantly might be carried on a commercial aircraft. However, it was impossible to run the Osborne on batteries; it had to be plugged in.

A more enduring success was the Compaq moveable, the primary product from Compaq, introduced in 1983, by which period the IBM laptop computer had become the standard platform. though scarcely additional portable than the Osborne machines, and conjointly requiring AC power to run, it ran MS-DOS and was the first true IBM clone (IBM's own later transportable computer, that arrived in 1984, was notably less IBM PC-compatible than the Compaq[citation needed]).

Another significant machine announced in 1981, although initial sold widely in 1983, was the Epson HX-20. an easy handheld pc, it featured a full-transit 68-key keyboard, rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries, a small (120 x 32-pixel) dot-matrix LCD display with four lines of text, 20 characters per line text mode, a 24 column dot matrix printer, a Microsoft BASIC interpreter, and sixteen kB of RAM (expandable to 32 kB).

However, arguably the primary true laptop was the GRiD Compass 1101, designed by Bill Moggridge in 1979-1980, and released in 1982. Enclosed in a magnesium case, it introduced the now acquainted clamshell design, in which the flat show folded shut against the keyboard. the pc may be run from batteries, and was equipped with a 320×200-pixel plasma show and 384 kilobyte bubble memory. it was not IBM-compatible, and its high value (US$ ten,000) limited it to specialized applications. However, it absolutely was used heavily by the U.S. military, and by NASA on the house Shuttle throughout the Eighties. The GRiD's manufacturer subsequently earned vital returns on its patent rights as its innovations became commonplace. GRiD Systems Corp. was later bought by Tandy (RadioShack).

Two alternative noteworthy early laptops were the Sharp PC-5000 and also the Gavilan SC, announced in 1983 however initial sold in 1984. The Gavilan was notably the primary pc to be marketed as a "laptop". it had been also equipped with a pioneering touchpad-like pointing device, put in on a panel above the keyboard. like the GRiD Compass, the Gavilan and the Sharp were housed in clamshell cases, but they were partly IBM-compatible, although primarily running their own system software. both had LCD displays, and will connect to optional external printers.

The year 1983 conjointly saw the launch of what was in all probability the biggest-selling early laptop, the Kyocera Kyotronic eighty five, which owed a lot of to the look of the previous Epson HX-20. although it absolutely was initially a slow seller in Japan, it absolutely was quickly licensed by Tandy Corporation, Olivetti, and NEC, which saw its potential and marketed it respectively as TRS-80 Model one hundred line (or Tandy 100), Olivetti M-10, NEC PC-8201.[2] The machines ran on commonplace AA batteries. The Tandy's built-in programs, including a BASIC interpreter, a text editor, and a terminal program, were provided by Microsoft, and are thought to possess been written in part by Bill Gates himself. the pc wasn't a clamshell, but provided a tiltable 8×40-character LCD screen higher than a full-travel keyboard. With its internal modem, it absolutely was a highly transportable communications terminal. as a result of its portability, sensible battery life (and ease of replacement), reliability (it had no moving parts), and low price (as very little as US$ 300), the model was highly regarded, changing into a favourite among journalists. It weighed less than a pair of kg with dimensions of thirty × twenty one.5 × 4.5 cm (12 × 8.5 × 1.75 inches). Initial specifications included 8 kilobyte of RAM (expandable to twenty four kB) and a 3 MHz processor. The machine was actually regarding the dimensions of a paper notebook, but the term had nonetheless to come back into use and it had been usually described as a "portable" computer.

Among the first industrial IBM-compatible laptops were the IBM computer Convertible, introduced in 1986, and two Toshiba models, the T1000 and T1200, introduced in 1987. though restricted floppy-based DOS machines, with the operating system stored in read-only memory, the Toshiba models were small and lightweight enough to be carried in a backpack, and will be flee lead-acid batteries. These conjointly introduced the now-standard "resume" feature to DOS-based machines: the computer can be paused between sessions, while not having to be restarted on every occasion.

The first laptops successful on an outsized scale came in large part as a result of missive of invitation For Proposal (RFP) by the U.S. Air Force in 1987. This contract would eventually result in the acquisition of over two hundred,000 laptops. Competition to produce this contract was fiercely contested and the major pc firms of the time; IBM, Toshiba, Compaq, NEC, and Zenith data Systems (ZDS), rushed to develop laptops in a shot to win this deal. ZDS, which had earlier won a landmark agitate the IRS for its Z-171, was awarded this contract for its SupersPort series. The SupersPort series was originally launched with an Intel 8086 processor, twin floppy disk drives, a backlit, blue and white STN LCD screen, and a NiCD battery pack. Later models featured an Intel 80286 processor and a 20MB arduous disk drive. On the strength of this deal, ZDS became the world's largest laptop supplier in 1987 and 1988.

ZDS partnered with Tottori Sanyo within the design and manufacturing of these laptops. This relationship is notable because it absolutely was the first deal between a significant whole and an Asian OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer). At the time, Compaq, IBM, Toshiba, NEC, etc. all designed and made their own machines. However, when the success of the ZDS giving other relationships, like Compaq and Citizen, soon followed. At this point the quality of Japanese engineering and producing in conjunction with the strength of the dollar relative to the yen (typically regarding a hundred thirty Yen = $1) drove most brands to suppliers in Japan. corporations like Sanyo, Tottori Sanyo, Citizen, and Casio were all heavily concerned in this business as OEMs. However, by the mid-1990s a weakening dollar and therefore the rising viability of Taiwanese OEMs like Acer, Quanta, Compal, Twinhead, and Chicony lead the supply base to rapidly shift from Japan to Taiwan. Additionally, brands which were more nimble and relied less on internal engineering like Gateway, Dell and Micron began to rise quickly to leadership positions. combinations like Dell/Compal and Gateway/Quanta eventually became powerhouse partnerships and greatly contributed to the prominence of Taiwanese OEMs because the center of laptop manufacturing from concerning 1995 onward.

Another notable computer was the Cambridge Z88, designed by Clive Sinclair, introduced in 1988. concerning the size of an A4 sheet of paper still, it ran on commonplace batteries, and contained basic spreadsheet, word processing, and communications programs. It anticipated the long run miniaturization of the transportable computer; and, as a ROM-based machine with a small display, will -- just like the TRS-80 Model 100 -- even be seen as a forerunner of the personal digital assistant.

By the tip of the 1980s, laptop computers were becoming in style among business individuals. The NEC Ultralite, released in mid-1989, was maybe the primary notebook computer, weighing simply over two kg; in lieu of a floppy or onerous drive, it contained a a pair of megabyte RAM drive, however this reduced its utility in addition as its size. the first notebook computers to incorporate hard drives were those of the Compaq LTE series, introduced toward the tip of that year. really the scale of a notebook, they additionally featured backlit displays with CGA resolutions (though not CGA colors).

The Macintosh transportable, Apple's 1st attempt at a battery-powered computerThe 1st Apple pc machine designed to be used on the go was the 1989 Macintosh transportable (although an LCD screen had been an option for the transportable Apple IIc in 1984). truly a "luggable", the Mac portable was praised for its clear active matrix show and long battery life, but was a poor seller because of its bulk. within the absence of a real Apple laptop, several compatible machines like the Outbound Laptop were out there for Mac users; but, for copyright reasons, the user had to provide a collection of Mac ROMs, that typically meant having to shop for a replacement or used Macintosh still.

The Apple PowerBook series, introduced in October 1991, pioneered changes that are now de facto standards on laptops, like the position of the keyboard, space for palm rest, and therefore the inclusion of a built-in pointing device (a trackball). the following year, IBM released its Thinkpad 700C, that includes a similar style (though with a distinctive red TrackPoint pointing device).

Later PowerBooks introduced the primary 256-color displays (PowerBook 165c, 1993), and first true touchpad, initial 16-bit sound recording, and first built-in Ethernet network adapter (PowerBook five hundred, 1994).

The summer of 1995 was a big turning purpose within the history of notebook computing. In August of that year Microsoft introduced Windows ninety five. it had been the primary time that Microsoft had placed abundant of the ability management control in the operating system. before this time every brand used custom BIOS, drivers and in some cases, ASICs, to optimize the battery lifetime of its machines. This move by Microsoft was controversial in the eyes of notebook designers as a result of it greatly reduced their ability to innovate; but, it did serve its role in simplifying and stabilizing bound aspects of notebook design. Windows ninety five additionally ushered within the importance of the CD-ROM in mobile computing and initiated the shift to the Intel Pentium processor because the base platform for notebooks. The Gateway Solo was the primary notebook introduced with a Pentium processor and a CD-ROM. By also featuring a removeable hard disk drive and floppy drive it had been the first three-spindle (optical, floppy, and arduous disk drive) pc. The Gateway Solo was extraordinarily successful at intervals the consumer segment of the market. In roughly the same time amount the Dell Latitude, Toshiba Satellite, and IBM Thinkpad were reaching great success with Pentium-based two-spindle (hard disk and floppy disk drive) systems directed toward the corporate market.

An laptop murah recent (1997) Micron laptopAs technology improved throughout the Nineteen Nineties, the usefulness and recognition of laptops increased. Correspondingly costs went down. several developments specific to laptops were quickly implemented, improving usability and performance. Among them were:

   Improved battery technology. The heavy lead-acid batteries were replaced with lighter and more efficient technologies, first nickel cadmium or NiCD, then nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and then lithium ion battery and lithium polymer.
   Power-saving processors. whereas laptops in 1991 were limited to the 80286 processor because of the energy demands of the more powerful 80386, the introduction of the Intel 386SL processor, designed for the specific power needs of laptops, marked the purpose at that laptop needs were included in CPU design. The 386SL integrated a 386SX core with a memory controller and this was paired with an I/O chip to make the SL chipset. it had been additional integrated than any previous resolution although its value was higher. it was heavily adopted by the major notebook brands of the time. Intel followed this with the 486SL chipset that used a similar architecture. However, Intel had to abandon this design approach because it introduced its Pentium series. Early versions of the mobile Pentium required TAB mounting (also utilized in LCD manufacturing) and this initially restricted the quantity of corporations capable of supplying notebooks. However, Intel did eventually migrate to more standard chip packaging. One limitation of notebooks has always been the issue in upgrading the processor which is a common attribute of desktops. Intel did try and solve this problem with the introduction of the MMC for mobile computing. The MMC was a typical module upon that the CPU and external cache memory might sit. It gave the notebook buyer the potential to upgrade his CPU at a later date, eased the producing process some, and was also utilized in some cases to skirt U.S. import duties because the CPU may well be added to the chassis once it arrived within the U.S. Intel stuck with MMC for many generations but ultimately could not maintain the appropriate speed and information integrity to the memory subsystem through the MMC connector.
   Improved liquid crystal displays, especially active-matrix TFT (Thin-Flim Transitor) LCD technology. Early laptop screens were black and white, blue and white, or grayscale, STN (Super Twist Nematic) passive-matrix LCDs liable to serious shadows, ghosting and blurry movement (some moveable laptop screens were sharper monochrome plasma displays, however these drew too much current to be powered by batteries). Color STN screens were used for some time although their viewing quality was poor. By concerning 1991 , 2 new color LCD techologies hit the mainstream market in a big way; dual STN and TFT. the dual STN screens solved many of the viewing issues of STN at a very cheap worth and therefore the TFT screens offered glorious viewing quality although initially at a steep value. DSTN continued to supply a major price advantage over TFT till the mid-90s before the cost delta dropped to the point that DSTN was no longer used in notebooks. improvements in production technology meant displays became larger, sharper, had higher native resolutions, faster response time and could show color with great accuracy, making them a suitable substitute for a standard CRT monitor.
   Improved laborious disk technology. Early laptops and portables had only floppy disk drives. As thin, high-capacity exhausting disk drives with higher reliability and shock resistance and lower power consumption became accessible, users could store their work on laptop computers and take it with them. The 3.5" HDD was created initially as a response to the requirements of notebook designers that needed smaller, lower power consumption merchandise. As pressure to continue to shrink the notebook size even more, the 2.5" HDD was introduced.
   Improved connectivity. Internal modems and commonplace serial, parallel, and PS/2 ports on IBM PC-compatible laptops made it easier to figure away from home; the addition of network adapters and, from 1997, USB, as well as, from 1999, Wi-Fi, created laptops as easy to use with peripherals as a desktop computer.

The $100 laptop

A first generation prototype of the $100 laptop In 2005, school members from the MIT Media Lab together with Nicholas Negroponte introduced the $100 laptop and therefore the One Laptop Per child project. The aim is to style, manufacture, and distribute laptops that are sufficiently cheap to provide every child within the world access to knowledge and fashionable styles of education. The laptops are to be sold to governments and issued to kids by colleges. These equipments, of which several prototypes have already been presented, will be rugged, Linux-based, and thus energy efficient that a hand-cranking dynamo can alone offer sufficient power for operation (although this hand-crank has since been removed). Ad-hoc wireless mesh networking could also be used to allow many machines to share a single internet association.

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